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The average accumulated precipitation mm in the study region was calculated using available data Results and discussion Leaf exudate chemical profile The total phenolic and aloin content of LE from the aloe vera leaves varied based on the season during which the samples were collected. The accumulation of total phenolics in the summer LE seems to be associated with the climatic conditions during the collection period Figure 2a, b.
Precipitation indices were lower during the summer months January to March 27 Figure 2a , possibly causing hydric stress in the plants.
In the spring, the lower total phenolic content of LE coincides with a period of greatest precipitation that year. Figure 2. Seasonal differences in rainfall, phenolic content and aloin content. The husk of Aloe leaves has greater levels of total phenolics compared to the leaf interior and internal parenchyma. In the literature, these values range from Among the various phenolic compounds in the leaves of Aloe, anthraquinones are noteworthy, particularly aloin.
Anthraquinones are free in phloem vessels directly below the leaf epidermis, and aloin, in particular, is distributed throughout the plant as part of its defense mechanism In the present study, we found the highest levels of aloin in the summer samples and the lowest in the spring samples Figure 2 b, c. These results are correlated with the total phenolic content found in the studied samples Figure 2. Previous studies have also suggested the effect of seasonality on aloin content, and its synthesis is strongly influenced by precipitation levels.
Dry periods have been correlated with greater content of aloin in the analysis of aloe vera leaves 15 , 31 , However, other factors can influence aloin content of aloe vera leaves, including cultivation conditions, age, and plant health For example, higher levels of barbaloin, isobarbaloin, and aloin in Aloe sp.
Antimicrobial activity Despite significant differences in the levels of total phenolics and aloin in the LE samples Figure 2b, c , these levels did not influence antimicrobial activity against S.
Figure 3. The effectiveness of LE from aloe vera leaves as an antimicrobial agent has been demonstrated for a wide variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including S. In the literature, the MIC of aloe vera extracts against S. This variation may be related to diverse factors, such as the Aloe species studied, the part of the aloe leaf used in the tests, and the type of extraction and resuspension vehicle used.
In the current study, the LE samples were collected directly from the cut leaf without any type of posterior extraction of the compounds of interest.
Some solvents are capable of extracting certain compounds that may possess greater antimicrobial activity than others 39 ; however, resuspension in water may be the easiest way to use aloe vera leaf subproducts, making it accessible, even to the producer. An interesting aspect to consider in the present study is that the concentration of total phenolics and aloin in the LE samples does not seem to affect antimicrobial activity.
By contrast 36 , the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity of aloe vera LE has been associated with the concentration of phenolic and aloin compounds, suggesting that older leaves have higher levels of these compounds, and as such, have greater biological activity and defense against microorganisms and herbivores.
For Fabry et al.
As such, the antimicrobial action of the LE samples in the present study can be considered good, even though neither extraction nor isolation of the principal components took place.
Cytotoxicity of leaf exudate The LE showed high toxicity to MAC-T lineage cells, causing significant reduction in cellular viability at concentrations greater than 7. The IC50 was It is worth noting that the MIC of S. This result is significant because it suggests that caution must be exercised when considering the intramammary use of LE in order to avoid inflammation, owing to the death of epithelial cells.
However, future studies are needed with aloin purified to determine the inhibition of bacterial growth and the degree of toxicity on mammary cells. Figure 4. Data shown are an average of three independent experiments.
In an in vivo situation, the administration of a toxic product to bovine mammary glands can result in the development of inflammation 42 , which is more severe than that caused by the infection of pathogens In these cases, the attempt to combat inflammation leads to the formation of connective tissue at the affected site, which can diminish the alveolar area responsible for the synthesis of milk and, consequently, reduce milk production.
In more severe cases, the loss of complete mammary glandular function, or even death of the animal, can occur 43 , The MAC-T cellular lineage 45 is an established model that has been frequently used in the investigation of mammary glandular functions and mediators of inflammatory processes Nonetheless, studies reporting on the effects of Aloe sp.
The toxic effects of aloe vera LE on other types of cells are discussed in the literature and have been associated with the presence of aloin and aloe emodin These anthraquinones induce the apoptosis of cells caused by a reduction in the proportion of cells in the mitotic phase Another hypothesis is that disruptions to the cell cycle and cellular differentiation, stimulation of the immune system, and antioxidant activity also have an anti-proliferative effect While the results found for MAC-T cells show that aloe vera LE has a high toxic potential for bovine mammary glands, the topical use of this product on the external area of the udder, for example pre- and post-dipping, or on instruments used during the management of milking, can be suggested.
In this case, its potential as a disinfectant should be investigated, and cytotoxicity tests on epithelial cells will be performed. Furthermore, it is important to highlight that the compounds present in the Aloe vera LE liquid oxidize easily in the presence of light, oxygen, and at room temperature As such, very high concentrations are required in order to achieve antimicrobial efficacy against S.
Thus, we suggest the standardization of a methodology that can preserve and conserve these oxidative compounds, such as nanoencapsulation, which can maintain the desired antimicrobial activity and diminish the toxic effects. Dataset 1. At this concentration, aloe vera LE shows strong toxic effects on bovine mammary epithelial cells of the MAC-T lineage. Write a customer review. Amazon Rapids Fun stories for kids on the go.
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